Under Yezhov, the purges reached their height, with roughly half of the Soviet political and military establishment being imprisoned or shot, along with hundreds of thousands of others, suspected of disloyalty or " wrecking. On February 4, , he was executed. In the foreground was Leon Trotsky and Lev Kamenev.
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The photo was later altered and both were removed by censors. He was an influential politician in the early days of the Soviet Union , first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and later as the founder and commander of the Red Army and People's Commissar of War. He was also among the first members of the Politburo. He became an enemy of the State and was erased from Soviet history after leading the failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the s and the increasing bureaucratization of the Soviet Union.
On November 7, , this image was snapped of the Soviet leadership celebrating the second anniversary of the October Revolution. After Trotsky and his allies fell from power, a number of figures were removed from the image, including Trotsky and two people over to Lenin's left, wearing glasses and giving a salute. Lev Kamenev two men over on Lenin's right was another of Stalin's opponents and below the boy in front of Trotsky, another bearded figure, Artemic Khalatov the one time Commissar of publishing, was also edited out. Kamenev was born in Moscow , the son of a Jewish railway worker and a Russian Orthodox housewife.
After Sergei Kirov's murder on December 1, , which precipitated Stalin's Great Purges , Zinoviev , Kamenev and their closest associates were once again expelled from the Communist Party and arrested in December They were tried in January and were forced to admit "moral complicity" in Kirov's assassination. Zinoviev was sentenced to 10 years in prison, Kamenev to five years in prison. Kamenev was charged separately in early in connection with the Kremlin Case and, although he refused to confess, was sentenced to ten years in prison. In August , after months of careful preparations and rehearsals in Soviet secret police prisons, Zinoviev, Kamenev and 14 others, mostly Old Bolsheviks , were put on trial again in the Moscow Trials.
Kamenev and all the others were found guilty and were executed by shooting on August 25, On November 7, , Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin led his leftist revolutionaries in a revolt against the ineffective Provisional Government Russia was still using the Julian Calendar at the time, so it is still called the October Revolution. The October Revolution ended the phase of the revolution instigated in February of that year, replacing Russia's short-lived provisional parliamentary government with government by soviets , local councils elected by bodies of workers and peasants.
Liberal and monarchist forces, loosely organized into the White Army , immediately went to war against the Bolsheviks' Red Army. During the Revolution a number of pictures were taken of successful fighters celebrating their victories. These were often used as postcards after the war.
The background of the original image includes a store that says in Russian, "Watches, gold and silver". The image was then changed to read, "Struggle for your rights", and a flag was changed to more clearly read, "Down with the monarchy — long live the Republic! It would later split into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions, with the Bolsheviks eventually becoming the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This picture, taken in February , records a meeting of the St. Shortly after the picture was taken the Okhrana arrested the whole group.
The members received various punishments, with Lenin being arrested, held by authorities for fourteen months and then released and exiled to the village of Shushenskoye in Siberia , where he mingled with such notable Marxists as Georgy Plekhanov , who had introduced socialism to Russia. Standing at center is Alexander Malchenko. At the time of this picture he was an engineering student and his mother would let Lenin hide out at her house. After his arrest he spent some time in exile before returning in and abandoning the revolution.
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He moved to Moscow, where he worked as a senior engineer in various state departments before in being arrested, wrongfully accused of being a " wrecker " and executed on November 18, After his arrest and execution he was airbrushed out of all reproductions. In he was posthumously rehabilitated and reappeared in reproductions of the image. After cosmonaut Valentin Bondarenko died in a training accident in , the Soviet government airbrushed him out of photographs of the first group of cosmonauts.
Chistye zhanry fotografii i fotozhurnalistiki ostalis', pozhaluj, lish' v specializirovannyh izdaniyah. Avtor polnost'ju pogruzilsya v fotozhurnalistiku, ego issledovanie osnovyvaetsya ne na lichnoj ocenke ili mnenii, no na kachestvennom issledovanii i izuchenii soputstvujushhego materiala. V dannoj rabote avtor masterski ispol'zuet terminologiju, ponyatiya i opisanie metodov, svojstvennyh fotozhurnalistike, chem demonstriruet svoju prosveshhjonnost' i shirokie poznaniya v oblasti fotografii i fotozhurnalistiki v celom.
Kvintjessenciya nakoplennoj v proshlom veke teorii fotozhurnalistiki, gramotno vypolnennaya avtorom, bez somneniya pomozhet redaktoram, zhurnalistam, fotozhurnalistam, uchreditelyam izdanij i prosto chitatelyam luchshe razbirat'sya v neverbal'noj chasti izdatel'skoj deyatel'nosti. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller.
Condition: New. Language: Russian. Brand New Book. Sovremennaya fotozhurnalistika preterpevaet znachitel nye izmeneniya, v svyazi s tehnologicheskim i social nym progressom. Chem bol she otlichij i njuansov poyavlyaetsya v sovremennyh zhanrah, tem slozhnee ih differincirovat.
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